Material Components for the Web


Text Fields

Text fields screenshot

The MDC Text Field component provides a textual input field adhering to the Material Design Specification. It is fully accessible, ships with RTL support, and includes a gracefully-degraded version that does not require any javascript.

Design & API Documentation


npm install --save @material/textfield


Single-line - with Javascript

<div class="mdc-textfield">
  <input type="text" id="my-textfield" class="mdc-textfield__input">
  <label class="mdc-textfield__label" for="my-textfield">Hint text</label>

It’s also possible to wrap an input within a <label> to avoid dynamic id generation:

<label class="mdc-textfield">
  <input type="text" class="mdc-textfield__input">
  <span class="mdc-textfield__label">Hint Text</span>

NOTE: Only place an mdc-textfield__label inside of a text field if you plan on using Javascript. Otherwise, the label must go outside of the textfield, as shown below.

Single-line - Gracefully degraded

<label for="textfield-no-js">Textfield with no JS: </label>
<div class="mdc-textfield">
  <input type="text" id="textfield-no-js" class="mdc-textfield__input" placeholder="Hint text">

Disabled Text Fields

<div class="mdc-textfield mdc-textfield--disabled">
  <input type="text" id="disabled-textfield" class="mdc-textfield__input" disabled>
  <label class="mdc-textfield__label" for="disabled-textfield">Disabled text field</label>

Pre-filled text fields

When dealing with JS-driven text fields that already have values, you’ll want to ensure that you render the text field label with the mdc-textfield__label--float-above modifier class. This will ensure that the label moves out of the way of the text field’s value and prevents a Flash Of Un-styled Content (FOUC). You’ll also want to add the mdc-textfield--upgraded modifier class on the textfield root element. The JS component does for you automatically on initialization, but since it won’t be added until that JS runs, adding it manually will prevent an initial FOUC.

<div class="mdc-textfield mdc-textfield--upgraded">
  <input type="text" id="pre-filled" class="mdc-textfield__input" value="Pre-filled value">
  <label class="mdc-textfield__label mdc-textfield__label--float-above" for="pre-filled">
    Label in correct place

Using help text

MDC Text Fields can include help text that is useful for providing supplemental information to users, as well for validation messages (covered below).

<div class="mdc-textfield">
  <input type="text" id="username" class="mdc-textfield__input" aria-controls="username-helptext">
  <label for="username" class="mdc-textfield__label">Username</label>
<p id="username-helptext" class="mdc-textfield-helptext" aria-hidden="true">
  This will be displayed on your public profile

Help text appears on input field focus and disappears on input field blur by default when using the textfield JS component.

Persistent help text

If you’d like the help text to always be visible, add the mdc-textfield-helptext--persistent modifier class to the element.

<div class="mdc-textfield">
  <input type="email" id="email" class="mdc-textfield__input">
  <label for="email" class="mdc-textfield__label">Email address</label>
<p class="mdc-textfield-helptext mdc-textfield-helptext--persistent">
  We will <em>never</em> share your email address with third parties

Help text and accessibility

Note that in every example where the help text is dependent on the state of the input element, we assign an id to the mdc-textfield-helptext element and set that id to the value of the aria-controls attribute on the input element. We recommend doing this as well as it will help indicate to assistive devices that the display of the help text is dependent on the interaction with the input element.

When using our vanilla JS component, if it sees that the input element has an aria-controls attribute, it will look for an element with the id specified and treat it as the text field’s help text element, taking care of adding/removing aria-hidden and other a11y attributes. This can also be done programmatically, which is described below.


MDC Textfield provides validity styling by using the :invalid and :required attributes provided by HTML5’s form validation API.

<div class="mdc-textfield">
  <input type="password" id="pw" class="mdc-textfield__input" required minlength=8>
  <label for="pw" class="mdc-textfield__label">Password</label>

An input’s validity is checked via checkValidity() on blur, and the styles are updated accordingly. When using the required attribute, an asterisk will be automatically appended to the label text, as per the spec.

Help text can be used to provide additional validation messages. Use mdc-textfield-helptext--validation-msg to provide styles for using the help text as a validation message. This can be easily combined with mdc-textfield-helptext--persistent to provide a robust UX for client-side form field validation.

<div class="mdc-textfield">
  <input required minlength=8 type="password" class="mdc-textfield__input" id="pw"
  <label for="pw" class="mdc-textfield__label">Choose password</label>
<p class="mdc-textfield-helptext
  Must be at least 8 characters long

Multi-line - With Javascript

<div class="mdc-textfield mdc-textfield--multiline">
  <textarea id="multi-line" class="mdc-textfield__input" rows="8" cols="40"></textarea>
  <label for="multi-line" class="mdc-textfield__label">Multi-line Label</label>

Multi-line - Gracefully Degraded

<label for="css-only-multiline">Multi-line label: </label>
<div class="mdc-textfield mdc-textfield--multiline">
  <textarea class="mdc-textfield__input"
            rows="8" cols="40"
            placeholder="Tell the world something about yourself!"></textarea>


<div class="mdc-textfield mdc-textfield--fullwidth">
  <input class="mdc-textfield__input"
         placeholder="Full-Width Textfield"
         aria-label="Full-Width Textfield">
<div class="mdc-textfield mdc-textfield--multiline mdc-textfield--fullwidth">
  <textarea class="mdc-textfield__input"
            placeholder="Full-Width multiline textfield"
            rows="8" cols="40"
            aria-label="Full-Width multiline textfield"></textarea>

Note that full-width text fields do not support floating labels. Labels should not be included as part of the DOM structure for full-width text fields.

Text Field Boxes

<div class="mdc-textfield mdc-textfield--box">
  <input type="text" id="tf-box" class="mdc-textfield__input">
  <label for="tf-box" class="mdc-textfield__label">Your Name</label>
  <div class="mdc-textfield__bottom-line"></div>

Note that Text field boxes support all of the same features as normal textfields, including help text, validation, and dense UI.

CSS-only text field boxes

<label for="css-only-textfield-box">Your name:</label>
<div class="mdc-textfield mdc-textfield--box">
  <input type="text" class="mdc-textfield__input" id="css-only-textfield-box" placeholder="Name">

Using the JS component

MDC Textfield ships with Component / Foundation classes which are used to provide a full-fidelity Material Design text field component.

Including in code

import {MDCTextfield, MDCTextfieldFoundation} from 'mdc-textfield';
const mdcTextfield = require('mdc-textfield');
const MDCTextfield = mdcTextfield.MDCTextfield;
const MDCTextfieldFoundation = mdcTextfield.MDCTextfieldFoundation;
require(['path/to/mdc-textfield'], mdcTextfield => {
  const MDCTextfield = mdcTextfield.MDCTextfield;
  const MDCTextfieldFoundation = mdcTextfield.MDCTextfieldFoundation;
const MDCTextfield = mdc.textfield.MDCTextfield;
const MDCTextfieldFoundation = mdc.textfield.MDCTextfieldFoundation;

Automatic Instantiation


Manual Instantiation

import {MDCTextfield} from 'mdc-textfield';

const textfield = new MDCTextfield(document.querySelector('.mdc-textfield'));

Controlling ripple instantiation

When MDCTextfield is instantiated with a root element containing the mdc-textfield--box class, it instantiates an MDCRipple instance on the element in order to facilitate the correct interaction UX for text field boxes as outlined in the spec. The way this ripple is instantiated can be controlled by passing a ripple factory argument to the constructor.

const textfieldBoxEl = document.querySelector('.mdc-textfield--box');
const textfield = new MDCTextfield(textfieldBoxEl, /* foundation */ undefined, (el) => {
  // do something with el...
  return new MDCRipple(el);

By default the ripple factory simply calls new MDCRipple(el) and returns the result.

MDCTextfield API

Similar to regular DOM elements, the MDCTextfield functionality is exposed through accessor methods.


HTMLLabelElement. This is a normal property (non-accessor) that holds a reference to the element being used as the text field’s “help text”. It defaults to null. If the text field’s input element contains an aria-controls attribute on instantiation of the component, it will look for an element with the corresponding id within the document and automatically assign it to this property.


Boolean. Proxies to the foundation’s isDisabled/setDisabled methods when retrieved/set respectively.


MDCRipple instance. Set to the MDCRipple instance for the root element that MDCTextfield initializes when given an mdc-textfield--box root element. Otherwise, the field is set to null.

Using the foundation class

Because MDC Textfield is a feature-rich and relatively complex component, its adapter is a bit more complicated.

Method Signature Description
addClass(className: string) => void Adds a class to the root element
removeClass(className: string) => void Removes a class from the root element
addClassToLabel(className: string) => void Adds a class to the label element. We recommend you add a conditional check here, and in removeClassFromLabel for whether or not the label is present so that the JS component could be used with text fields that don’t require a label, such as the full-width text field.
removeClassFromLabel(className: string) => void Removes a class from the label element
addClassToHelptext(className: string) => void Adds a class to the help text element. Note that in our code we check for whether or not we have a help text element and if we don’t, we simply return.
removeClassFromHelptext(className: string) => void Removes a class from the help text element.
helptextHasClass(className: string) => boolean Returns whether or not the help text element contains the current class
setHelptextAttr(name: string, value: string) => void Sets an attribute on the help text element
removeHelptextAttr(name: string) => void Removes an attribute on the help text element
registerInputFocusHandler(handler: EventListener) => void Registers an event listener on the native input element for a “focus” event
deregisterInputFocusHandler(handler: EventListener) => void Un-registers an event listener on the native input element for a “focus” event
registerInputBlurHandler(handler: EventListener) => void Registers an event listener on the native input element for a “blur” event
deregisterInputBlurHandler(handler: EventListener) => void Un-registers an event listener on the native input element for a “blur” event
registerInputInputHandler(handler: EventListener) => void Registers an event listener on the native input element for an “input” event
deregisterInputInputHandler(handler: EventListener) => void Un-registers an event listener on the native input element for an “input” event
registerInputKeydownHandler(handler: EventListener) => void Registers an event listener on the native input element for a “keydown” event
deregisterInputKeydownHandler(handler: EventListener) => void Un-registers an event listener on the native input element for a “keydown” event
getNativeInput() => {value: string, disabled: boolean, badInput: boolean, checkValidity: () => boolean}? Returns an object representing the native text input element, with a similar API shape. The object returned should include the value, disabled and badInput properties, as well as the checkValidity() function. We never alter the value within our code, however we do update the disabled property, so if you choose to duck-type the return value for this method in your implementation it’s important to keep this in mind. Also note that this method can return null, which the foundation will handle gracefully.

The full foundation API

MDCTextfieldFoundation.isDisabled() => boolean

Returns a boolean specifying whether or not the input is disabled.

MDCTextfieldFoundation.setDisabled(disabled: boolean)

Updates the input’s disabled state.


MDC Textfield components use the configured theme’s primary color for its underline and label text when the input is focused.

MDC Textfield components support dark themes.