Text fields allow users to input text into your app. They are a direct connection to your users’ thoughts and intentions via on-screen, or physical, keyboard. The Material Design Text Fields take the familiar element to new levels by adding useful animations, character counts, helper text, error states, and styles.
MDC’s text fields come in several styles and have a great range of customization. Google’s UX research has determined that Outlined and Filled (aka ‘text box’) styles perform the best by a large margin. So use
MDCTextInputControllerOutlinedTextArea if you can and set colors and fonts that match your company’s branding.
For more information on text field styles, and animated images of each style in action, see Text Field Styles.
Design & API documentation
Table of contents
- Examples - Multi Line
Text Fields provides both a single-line version based on
UITextField and a multi-line version backed by
UITextView as well as objects that customize the text fields’ behavior and appearance called ‘Text Input Controllers’.
The actual components (
MDCMultilineTextField) are ‘dumb’: they do not have styles, animations, or advanced features. They are designed to be controlled from the outside, via very liberal public API, with a text input controller.
Most text input controllers included are based on
MDCTextInputControllerBase which manipulates the exposed elements of the text field to make placeholders float.
There is also a text input controller for full-width forms (
MDCTextInputControllerBased controllers, it also handles errors and character counting but has not been thoroughly tested with UX research.
Customize the included text input controllers via their parameters or create your own to express your app’s brand identity thru typography, color, and animation: if the placeholder should move, add constraints or change the frame. If the trailing label should display validation information, change the text and color it.
This pattern is not a delegation or data source-like relationship but rather a controller-to-view relationship: the text field does not require nor expect to be served data or instruction but is instead malleable and easily influenced by outside interference.
Installation with CocoaPods
Add the following to your
Then, run the following command:
To import the component:
Text Field Classes: The Inputs
This is a single-line text input. It’s subclassed from
UITextField and supports all the features you’d expect from a
- Overlay views (left and right / leading and trailing)
- Custom fonts, colors
- Clear button
as well as new features:
- Labels below the input
- Custom layouts
- Persistable placeholder
- Border view
Multi-line Text Field
This is a multi-line text input. It’s subclassed from
UIView with an embedded
UITextView. It supports all the features of the single-line text field and
- Minimum number of lines
Text Input Controller Classes: Recommended
See Text Field Styles for images and details.
These are the controllers that have been optimized for discoverability and clickability thru rigorous research, design iterations, and user testing. Always try to use one of these first.
Filled background with underline.
Outlined background with no fill.
Nearly identical to
MDCTextInputControllerOutlined but with two differences:
- Intended only for multi-line text fields that remain expanded when empty
- The floating placeholder does not cross the border but rather floats below it
Text Input Controller Classes: Cautioned
See Text Field Styles for images and details.
These are the controllers that have performed the worst in user testing or haven’t been extensively user tested at all. Use them only if you have to or conduct your own A/B testing against one of the recommended controllers to see if they perform as expected in your application.
Optimized for full width forms like emails. While common in messaging apps, its design hasn’t been rigorously tested with users. For now, the Material Design team suggests using this only when another design is impracticle.
‘Classic’ 2014 Material Design text field. This style is still found in many applications and sites but should be considered deprecated. It tested poorly in Material Research’s user testing. Use
MDCTextInputControllerLegacyDefault && MDCTextInputControllerLegacyFullWidth
Soon to be deprecated styles only created and included for backwards compatibility of the library. They have no visual distinction from the other full width and underline controllers but their layout behaves slightly differently.
Text Input Controller Classes: For Subclassing Only
See Text Field Styles for images and details.
This class is meant to be subclassed and not used on its own. It’s a full implementation of the
MDCTextInputControllerFloatingPlaceholder protocol and holds all the ‘magic’ logic necessary to make:
- Floating placeholder animations
- Character counts
A text field that conforms to
MDCTextInput can be added to a view hierarchy the same way
UIView are. But to achieve the animations and presentations defined by the guidelines (floating placeholders, character counts), a controller that conforms to protocol
MDCTextInputController must be initialized to manage the text field.
NOTE: Expect to interact with both the text field (for the traditional API) and the controller (for changes affecting the presentation and state).
Examples - Multi Line
Text Field with Floating Placeholder
let textFieldFloating = MDCMultilineTextField() scrollView.addSubview(textFieldFloating) textFieldFloating.placeholder = "Full Name" textFieldFloating.textView.delegate = self textFieldControllerFloating = MDCTextInputControllerUnderline(textInput: textFieldFloating) // Hold on as a property
MDCMultilineTextField *textFieldFloating = [[MDCMultilineTextField alloc] init]; [self.scrollView addSubview:textFieldFloating]; textFieldFloating.placeholder = @"Full Name"; textFieldFloating.textView.delegate = self; self.textFieldControllerFloating = [[MDCTextInputControllerUnderline alloc] initWithTextInput:textFieldFloating];
Text Field with Character Count and Inline Placeholder
// First the text field component is setup just like a UITextField let textFieldDefaultCharMax = MDCMultilineTextField() scrollView.addSubview(textFieldDefaultCharMax) textFieldDefaultCharMax.placeholder = "Enter up to 50 characters" textFieldDefaultCharMax.textView.delegate = self // Second the controller is created to manage the text field textFieldControllerDefaultCharMax = MDCTextInputControllerUnderline(textInput: textFieldDefaultCharMax) // Hold on as a property textFieldControllerDefaultCharMax.characterCountMax = 50 textFieldControllerDefaultCharMax.isFloatingEnabled = false
// First the text field component is setup just like a UITextField MDCMultilineTextField *textFieldDefaultCharMax = [[MDCMultilineTextField alloc] init]; [self.scrollView addSubview:textFieldDefaultCharMax]; textFieldDefaultCharMax.placeholder = @"Enter up to 50 characters"; textFieldDefaultCharMax.textView.delegate = self; // Second the controller is created to manage the text field self.textFieldControllerDefaultCharMax = [[MDCTextInputControllerUnderline alloc] initWithTextInput: textFieldDefaultCharMax]; self.textFieldControllerDefaultCharMax.characterCountMax = 50; self.textFieldControllerDefaultCharMax.floatingEnabled = NO;
You can theme an MDCTextField using the TextFields theming extension. To add the theming extension to your project add the following line to your Podfile:
Then import the theming extension and the
MDCContainerScheme and create an
MDCContainerScheme instance. A container scheme
defines schemes for subsystems like Color and Typography. Finally, call theming methods on the theming extension of your MDCTextInputController instance.
// Step 1: Import the TextFields theming extension and container scheme import MaterialComponents.MaterialTextFields_Theming import MaterialComponents.MaterialContainerScheme // Step 2: Create or get a container scheme let containerScheme = MDCContainerScheme() // Step 3: Apply the container scheme to your component using the desired alwert style textInputController.applyTheme(withScheme: containerScheme)
// Step 1: Import the TextField theming extension and container scheme #import "MaterialTextFields+Theming.h" #import "MaterialContainerScheme.h" // Step 2: Create or get a container scheme MDCContainerScheme *containerScheme = [[MDCContainerScheme alloc] init]; // Step 3: Apply the container scheme to your component using the desired alert style [textInputController applyThemeWithScheme:containerScheme];
Text Fields Color Theming
You can theme a text field with your app’s color scheme using the ColorThemer extension.
You must first add the Color Themer extension to your project:
// Step 1: Import the ColorThemer extension import MaterialComponents.MaterialTextFields_ColorThemer // Step 2: Create or get a color scheme let colorScheme = MDCSemanticColorScheme() // Step 3: Apply the color scheme to your component // Applying to a text field MDCTextFieldColorThemer.apply(colorScheme, to: textField) // Applying to an input controller MDCTextFieldColorThemer.applySemanticColorScheme(colorScheme, to: inputController) // Applying to a specific class type of inputController MDCTextFieldColorThemer.applySemanticColorScheme(colorScheme, toAllControllersOfClass: MDCTextInputControllerUnderline.self)
// Step 1: Import the ColorThemer extension #import "MaterialTextFields+ColorThemer.h" // Step 2: Create or get a color scheme id<MDCColorScheming> colorScheme = [[MDCSemanticColorScheme alloc] initWithDefaults:MDCColorSchemeDefaultsMaterial201804]; // Step 3: Apply the color scheme to your component // Applying to a text field [MDCTextFieldColorThemer applySemanticColorScheme:colorScheme toTextInput:textField]; // Applying to an input controller [MDCTextFieldColorThemer applySemanticColorScheme:colorScheme toTextInputController:inputController]; // Applying to a specific class type of inputController [MDCTextFieldColorThemer applySemanticColorScheme:colorScheme toAllTextInputControllersOfClass:[MDCTextInputControllerUnderline class]];
Text Fields Typography Theming
You can theme a text field with your app’s typography scheme using the
You must first add the Typography Themer extension to your project:
// Step 1: Import the TypographyThemer extension import MaterialComponents.MaterialTextFields_TypographyThemer // Step 2: Create or get a typography scheme let typographyScheme = MDCTypographyScheme() // Step 3: Apply the typography scheme to your component // Applying to a text field MDCTextFieldTypographyThemer.apply(typographyScheme, to: textField) // Applying to an input controller MDCTextFieldTypographyThemer.apply(typographyScheme, to: inputController) // Applying to a specific class type of inputController MDCTextFieldTypographyThemer.apply(typographyScheme, toAllControllersOfClass: MDCTextInputControllerUnderline.self)
// Step 1: Import the TypographyThemer extension #import "MaterialTextFields+TypographyThemer.h" // Step 2: Create or get a typography scheme id<MDCTypographyScheming> typographyScheme = [[MDCTypographyScheme alloc] init]; // Step 3: Apply the typography scheme to your component // Applying to a text field [MDCTextFieldTypographyThemer applyTypographyScheme:typographyScheme toTextInput:textField]; // Applying to an input controller [MDCTextFieldTypographyThemer applyTypographyScheme:typographyScheme toTextInputController:inputController]; // Applying to a specific class type of inputController [MDCTextFieldTypographyThemer applyTypographyScheme:typographyScheme toAllTextInputControllersOfClass:[MDCTextInputControllerUnderline class]];
Like UITextFields, MDCTextFields are accessible by default. To best take advantage of their accessibility features please review the following recommendations.
Similar to UITextFields, MDCTextFields are not accessibility elements themselves. Rather, they are accessibility
containers whose subviews act as accessibility elements. Such subviews include the MDCTextField’s placeholder
label, the leading and trailing underline labels, and the clear button. The
accessibilityLabels of these subviews
contribute to the
accessibilityValue of the MDCTextField as a whole, giving it a value consistent with that of a
UITextField in a similar state. If the MDCTextField is empty, it will return a combination of any placeholderLabel text and
leading underline text. If the MDCTextField is not empty, it will return a combination of the MDCTextField’s current text
and any leading underline text.
MDCTextField does not provide a custom implementation for
accessibilityLabel. The client is free to set an
accessibilityLabel following norms established by Apple if they wish. However, they should consider
whether or not it it will provide information that is superfluous. A common scenario in which an
accessibilityLabel might not be necessary would be an MDCTextField whose leading underline label (a view not
present in UITextFields) conveys the information that an accessibility label might have otherwise conveyed. For
example, if an MDCTextField is intended to hold a user’s zip code, and the leading underline label’s
accessibilityLabel is already “Zip code”, setting an
accessibilityLabel of “Zip code” on the MDCTextField
may lead to duplicate VoiceOver statements.
In general, Apple advises designing your user interface in such a way that clarification in the form of an
-accessibilityHint is not needed. However, it is always an option.